The P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center was initiated in August of 2004 with funding provided by the NIH (through the NIBIB). The core themes in the Center continue to focus on functional tissue engineering achieved through the integration of the key elements in the field, via a systems approach; cells, scaffolds and bioreactors to control the environment. The Center is run at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts and is directed by Professor David Kaplan. The Center also includes a partner institution, Columbia University in New York City, where the Associate Director for TERC, Professor Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, runs additional aspects of the Center. There are two main cores in TERC, a biomaterials core at Tufts University and a bioreactor core at Columbia University. Stem cells and related cell biology needs are integrated into these two core efforts to optimize functional tissue outcomes.